Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Food Science (MS)

Degree Level



Food Science


Jamie I. Baum

Committee Member

Erin Kaye Howie Hickey

Second Committee Member

Xinya Liang

Third Committee Member

Elisabet Børsheim


Dietary Restirction, Intermittent Fasting, Time Restricted Feeding


Obesity in the United States continues to increase, and effective, long-term weight loss strategies are limited. Time restricted feeding (TRF) is a dietary intervention that has potential to serve as an effective long-term weight loss strategy, however more data is needed to establish the effectiveness of a TRF eating pattern on obesity and its related health outcomes. To our knowledge, manipulation of macronutrient composition during TRF intervention and the effect of TRF on sleep and mood have not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of protein supplementation during TRF on mood, sleep, and metabolic health in overweight and obese adults. Overweight and obese men and women (36.6±7.3 years; BMI: 32.8±6.5) participated in this randomized, controlled 12-week TRF dietary intervention (8 hour eating window with a 16 hour fast). Participants were allocated to one of two groups: 1) control, TRF (n=7) and 2) TRF with whey protein supplementation (25 g/d; n=9). Protein supplements were consumed at the breaking of the fasting period each day. Anthropometrics, sleep (via Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Global Sleeping Score; PSQI GSS), total mood disturbances (TMD; via Profile of Mood States (POMS) including six affect states of depression, fatigue, anger, tension, confusion, and vigor subscales), appetite (using visual analog scales), and weighed 3-day dietary intake records were assessed at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Sleep was also measured at 0 and 12 weeks via wrist Actigraphy. Body composition was measured via DXA at 0 and 12 weeks. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA to assess the relationship between interventions and within intervention at each time point. Overall, both interventions improved total body fat percentage (p <0.05) and fat mass to fat-free mass ratio (p < 0.05) over 12 weeks. There was a significant difference in mood states of tension and confusion between intervention groups (p <0.05) and the protein group total mood disturbance was significantly different (p <0.05) between week 1 and 12. However, there was no change in mood within the control group over the 12 week intervention period. Sleep, self-reported via PSQI, did not change between week 1 and week 12 within or between each of the dietary interventions. This pilot study suggests that protein supplementation during TRF has the potential to improve body composition by improving fat mass to fat free mass ratio in overweight or obese individuals. However, additional research is needed with a larger sample size to determine the long-term effect of protein supplementation in combination with TRF on mood, sleep, and body composition.