Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD)

Degree Level



Psychological Science


Timothy A. Cavell

Committee Member

Lauren B. Quetsch

Second Committee Member

Douglas A. Behrend


bullying, one-sided nominations, Peer nominations, social behaviors


In the current study, I aim to expand upon traditional methods for classifying children based on positive peer nominations and contribute to the field’s understanding of high-status bullies who maintain social resources despite bulling behaviors (e.g., van der Ploeg et al., 2020). Both reciprocated and one-sided (i.e., received and sent) positive peer nominations were used to distinguish socially meaningful subgroups. Participants included 659 children from 34 classrooms (M Age = 9.31 years, SD = .49 years; girls = 50.6%; Hispanic/Latino/a/x = 42.5%, White/European American = 29.9%, Black/African American = 2.3%, Asian/Asian American/Pacific Islander = 11.7%, Native American = 2.3%, Bi/Multiracial = 8.2%, Other or Missing = 4.6%). Results from latent profile analyses (LPA) indicated a 4-class solution best fit the data. Examination of classes and outcomes revealed a class of children with many reciprocated/received and few sent nominations who were more likely to be girls and generally better adjusted (e.g., less depressive symptoms and more prosocial) compared to other classes. A second class was characterized by few reciprocated/received and many sent nominations. Children in this class were less well-adjusted compared to other classes. Also identified was a class high on both reciprocated and sent nominations with few received nominations, and an average class with similar levels of reciprocated, received, and sent nominations. Classes did not differ as a function of self-reported bullying behavior; however, differences did emerge as a function of peer-reported bullying behavior. Results, implications, and future directions are discussed.