Date of Graduation
Master of Science in Human Environmental Science (MS)
Jamie I Baum
Second Committee Member
Sabrina P Trudo
Carbohydrate;High Protein;Metabolic Syndrome;Mood;Sleep;Well-being
Obesity is a growing epidemic affecting at least 312 million people worldwide and is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, as having 3 or more of the following: waist circumference greater than 102 cm in men or greater than 88 cm in women; serum level of triglycerides of 150 mg/dL or greater; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women; systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 130/85 mmHg or greater or fasting plasma glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater. Currently, the worldwide prevalence of MetS is 20–35%, with a high prevalence rate of over 30% among adults in the United States. MetS increases the risk of all-cause mortality and negatively affects outcomes of well-being including sleep quality and mood states. Nutrition is one of the key factors in MetS prevention and contributes to overall well-being. Subsequently, dietary protein has been identified as a supportive nutrient for the treatment and prevention of MetS. However, very few studies focus on the role of increased dietary protein intake in a state of weight maintenance and its effects on well-being. Even fewer studies focus on carbohydrate sources as part of a higher protein diet. White potatoes provides fiber and certain vitamins, such as vitamin B6 which increases the synthesis of serotonin, are considered key elements in the investigation of the link between starchy carbohydrates and overall health. However, the effects of white potatoes as a carbohydrate source with a higher protein diet on well-being outcomes in individuals at risk for MetS is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of consuming a carbohydrate source of white potatoes with a high protein, weight-maintenance diet on well-being outcomes of sleep quality and mood states in adults at risk for MetS. We hypothesized that long-term consumption of a carbohydrate source of white potatoes with a high protein, weight-maintenance diet will improve well-being outcomes of sleep quality and mood states as compared to a control carbohydrate (white rice) in adults at risk for MetS. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), a total of 21 participants (14 females and 7 males; age 35.4 8.9 years; BMI 36.2 6.1 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: 1) HPWP- High protein diet with white potatoes for 16 weeks (n=11) 2) HPCC- High protein diet with a control carbohydrate (white rice) for 16 weeks (n=10). The macronutrient ratio of the weight-maintenance diet was 40% carbohydrates, 30% protein and 30% fat. Anthropometrics including height, weight, BMI, and waist to hip ratio were assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Moreover, subjective sleep quality(via Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Global Sleeping Score (PSQI GSS)), objective sleep quality (via Actigraph accelerometry) and mood (via Profile of Mood States, Total Mood Disturbance (POMS TMD)) and its states along with Grit (via Grit Scale) were assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to evaluate the relationship between diet and well-being outcomes over time. Collectively, the results suggests that carbohydrate source within a high protein, weight-maintenance diet provides does not impact well-being outcomes of sleep quality and mood states in adults at risk for MetS. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03935048).
Hayat, M. (2023). The Effect of Carbohydrate Source as Part of a High Protein, Weight-Maintenance Diet on Outcomes of Well-being in Adults at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome. Graduate Theses and Dissertations Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/4864