Date of Graduation
Master of Science in Animal Science (MS)
Second Committee Member
Beef, Cattle, Complexed, Minerals, Receiving, Trace
The objective of experiments was to investigate the effects of inorganic or amino acid-complexed sources of trace minerals on health, gain performance, liver mineral concentrations, and carcass characteristics of beef heifers from receiving through finishing. To investigate the effects of inorganic or amino acid-complexed sources of trace minerals (zinc, copper, manganese, and cobalt) on performance and morbidity of beef heifers during the receiving period, crossbred beef heifer calves arriving on 3 delivery dates were used in a 42-day receiving trial. Treatments consisted of supplemental zinc (360 mg/d), copper (125 mg/d), manganese (200 mg/d), and cobalt (12 mg/d) from complexed (Availa-4, Zinpro Corp. Eden Prairie, MN) or inorganic sources (sulfates). Replacing inorganic sources of zinc, copper, manganese, and cobalt with amino acid complexed supplementation resulted in greater body weights and average daily gain. Cattle supplemented with inorganic trace mineral sources had a greater percentage of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity than cattle supplemented with complexed trace mineral sources and medication costs were lower for heifers supplemented with complexed trace mineral sources. Prolonged stress indicated by serum haptoglobin concentrations decreased throughout the receiving trial, and cattle supplemented with complexed trace mineral sources tended to have lower haptoglobin concentrations by d 28 of supplementation. However, the source of trace mineral had no effect on liver mineral concentrations. This study provided evidence for supplementing cattle for the first 42 days after arrival with amino acid complexed trace mineral sources improved heifer performance as compared to heifers supplemented with inorganic trace minerals. A second experiment was performed to determine the effects of inorganic or amino acid-complexed sources of trace minerals (zinc and copper) during a grazing period following a receiving trial on growth, feedlot, and carcass performance. Any cattle that failed to gain at least 0.45 kg/d, and(or) received 3 doses of antibiotic therapy during the receiving trial were removed from the study. Cattle grazed at 2 different locations in Arkansas; in Fayetteville, cattle grazed 6-acre stockpiled mixed grass pastures; in Batesville, cattle grazed 5-acre stockpiled novel-endophyte fescue pastures. Treatments consisted of supplemental zinc (540 mg/day) and copper (90 mg/day) from complexed (Availa, Zinpro Corp.) or inorganic sources (sulfates). A subset of calves was liver biopsied at the end of receiving and grazing phases to compare liver mineral concentrations. Following grazing, calves were removed from treatments and sent to a Kansas feedlot where they were commingled and fed in a single pen for 141 days. Morbidity and mortality data were recorded, and after slaughter, carcass data were collected. Overall, during grazing, growth performance nor liver mineral comparisons were not different between dietary treatments. Following the grazing period, there were no differences in feedlot morbidity, mortality, or carcass characteristics. In conclusion, although complexed sources of trace minerals (zinc, copper, manganese, and cobalt) improved body weight gain and decreased morbidity treatments during the receiving phase, there were no differences from grazing to slaughter when supplementing amino acid complexed versus sulfate mineral sources of zinc and copper during the grazing period.
Cheek, R. A. (2023). Effects of Supplemental Trace Minerals as Amino Acid Complexed or Inorganic Sources for Beef Cattle from Receiving through Finishing. Graduate Theses and Dissertations Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/4923