Date of Graduation
Master of Science in Food Science (MS)
Second Committee Member
Aubree L Hawley
Carbohydrate;Health;Higher protein diet;Metabolic syndrome;Nutrition
Obesity has become a major health crisis in the United States and across the globe . Recent findings suggest that approximately 50% of U.S. adults will have obesity and 25% will have severe obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2) by the year 2030 . Obesity-related cardiometabolic dysfunction is a significant public health concern [3, 4]. As rates of obesity increase, so too does prevalence of the metabolic syndrome . In the United States, incidence of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increasing, with approximately one in three adults qualifying for a diagnosis [6, 7]. MetS is a grouping of cardiometabolic risk factors including insulin resistance (IR), visceral adiposity (VA), atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD), and endothelial dysfunction (ED) . Each risk factor has its own detrimental effects, however, when these risk factors are clustered together they can have an even greater impact on cardiovascular health. If left untreated, the cardiometabolic risk factors of MetS contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) . Currently, there are two primary approaches used to treat and manage MetS: pharmacological and lifestyle (e.g. physical activity, nutrition/dietary intake) modification . Recently, higher protein diets (HPD) (approximately 28–30% of macronutrient content) and their effects on biomarkers of MetS have been the subject of much investigation [12-22]. Studies performed to evaluate short-term (4-24 hours) consumption of HPD show that HPD result in appetite suppression through decreased levels of orexigenic hormones and increased level of anorexigenic hormones, elevated plasma amino acid levels, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increased ketogenesis from the higher protein intake and increased energy expenditure through increased diet-induced thermogenesis [23, 24]. Studies performed to evaluate long-term (12-26 weeks) consumption of a HPD show that HPD results in reduced body weight and fat mass while preserving more lean mass and increasing energy expenditure when compared to a standard protein diet (SPD) [25-30]. Most research with HPD and its effect on cardiometabolic biomarkers, focuses on consumption of HPD under conditions of weight loss. However, very few studies focus on the role of the carbohydrate source in conjunction with a HPD in a state of weight maintenance and its effects on cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults at risk for MetS. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to determine the role of the carbohydrate source with a HPD on cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults at risk for MetS. We conducted two dietary interventions: 1) to determine the short-term effects of a carbohydrate source with a HPD on biomarkers in adults at risk for MetS and 2) to determine the long-term effect of a carbohydrate source with a HPD on cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults at risk for MetS. We hypothesized that 1) HPD containing white potatoes will improve appetite response in adults at risk for MetS and 2) HPD containing white potatoes will improve cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults at risk for MetS when compared to a HPD containing a control carbohydrate (white rice/pasta).
Thomas, A. J. (2023). Role of Carbohydrate Source as Part of a Higher Protein Diet on Markers of Metabolic Syndrome. Graduate Theses and Dissertations Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/5012