Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (PhD)

Degree Level



Electrical Engineering


Jeff Dix

Committee Member

Di, Jia

Second Committee Member

Ware, Morgan

Third Committee Member

Chen, Zhong


power consumption, energy harvesting technique (EHT), power efficiency, energy-efficient circuitry, low-power techniques, power management strategies


In recent years, the interest in remote wireless sensor networks has grown significantly, particularly with the rapid advancements in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. These networks find diverse applications, from inventory tracking to environmental monitoring. In remote areas where grid access is unavailable, wireless sensors are commonly powered by batteries, which imposes a constraint on their lifespan. However, with the emergence of wireless energy harvesting technologies, there is a transformative potential in addressing the power challenges faced by these sensors. By harnessing energy from the surrounding environment, such as solar, thermal, vibrational, or RF sources, these sensors can potentially operate autonomously for extended periods. This innovation not only enhances the sustainability of wireless sensor networks but also paves the way for a more energy-efficient and environmentally conscious approach to data collection and monitoring in various applications. This work explores the development of an RF-powered wireless sensor node in 22nm FDSOI technology working in the ISM band for energy harvesting and wireless data transmission. The sensor node encompasses power-efficient circuits, including an RF energy harvesting module equipped with a multi-stage RF Dickson rectifier, a robust power management unit, a DLL and XOR-based frequency synthesizer for RF carrier generation, and a class E power amplifier. To ensure the reliability of the WSN, a dedicated wireless RF source powers up the WSN. Additionally, the RF signal from this dedicated source serves as the reference frequency input signal for synthesizing the RF carrier for wireless data transmission, eliminating the need for an on-chip local oscillator. This approach achieves high integration and proves to be a cost-effective implementation of efficient wireless sensor nodes. The receiver and energy harvester operate at 915 MHz Frequency, while the transmitter functions at 2.45 GHz, employing On-Off Keying (OOK) for data modulation. The WSN utilizes an efficient RF rectifier design featuring a remarkable power conversion efficiency, reaching 55% at an input power of -14 dBm. Thus, the sensor node can operate effectively even with an extremely low RF input power of -25 dBm. The work demonstrates the integration of the wireless sensor node with an ultra-low-power temperature sensor, designed using 65 nm CMOS technology. This temperature sensor features an ultra-low power consumption of 60 nW and a Figure of Merit (FOM) of 0.022 [nJ.K-2]. The WSN demonstrated 55% power efficiency at a TX output power of -3.8 dBm utilizing a class E power amplifier.