Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Crop, Soil & Environmental Sciences (MS)

Degree Level



Crop, Soil & Environmental Sciences


Nilda R. Burgos

Committee Member

Edward E. Gbur

Second Committee Member

Nathan A. Slaton

Third Committee Member

Bob Scott


Biological sciences, Glufosinate, Glyphosate resistance, Tank mixing herbicides, Tembotrione, Tolerance mechanism


The occurrence of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth has prompted a shift in weed management strategies worldwide. Studies were conducted with the aim to (1) establish and compare the degree of tolerance of GR Palmer amaranth populations; (2) assess the efficacy of glufosinate, tembotrione, 2,4-D or dicamba, applied alone or tank-mixed, on Palmer amaranth with higher tolerance to glufosinate in the greenhouse and corn field, and (3) establish the mechanism involved in the tolerance of Palmer amaranth to glufosinate. Tembotrione, 2,4-D, dicamba, and glufosinate applied at 1x controlled 80 to 100%, 98 to 100%, 84 to 100%, and 94 to 100% Palmer amaranth, respectively. Differential response of Palmer amaranth populations to the test herbicides existed. The potential of selecting for resistance was highest in tembotrione, followed by dicamba. In the tank mixture test, all herbicides applied individually at 1x rate controlled Pra-C population 99 to 100% in the greenhouse and 91 to 100% in the field study. In corn, the control in Pra-C, Mis-C, and STF-C populations was 33 to 54% for tembotrione, 68 to 89% for 2,4-D, and 96 to 100% for glufosinate applied at their commercial rates. The study showed that half rates of 2,4-D and glufosinate can be applied, only in combination, without significantly compromising Palmer amaranth control. The majority of glufosinate + tembotrione and some glufosinate + dicamba mixtures were not compatible; glufosinate + 2,4-D mixtures were generally additive and in few cases, synergistic. The reduced efficacy from antagonism was overcome by mixing 1x rates of the herbicides. Pra-C (tolerant) had 2-folds higher tolerance than Lee-A (susceptible), with LD50 values of 344 and 141 g ha-1, respectively. The basal activity of the tolerant population was 20% higher than that of the susceptible. Tolerance to glufosinate is certainly due to higher baseline activity of GS in the tolerant plants, which would require more herbicide molecule to cause substantial inhibition.