Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum and Instruction (PhD)

Degree Level



Curriculum and Instruction


Michael T. Miller

Committee Member

Michael K. Daugherty

Second Committee Member

Tom E. Smith

Third Committee Member

Chris Shirley


Education, Adult education, Faith-based education, Learning activities, Nonformal education, Perspective transformation, Transformative learning, Learning theory


The study adapted an existing instrument to examine perspective transformation and its associated factors in participants of evangelical faith-based adult nonformal education in the Midwestern United States. Stratified random one-stage cluster sampling of 11 churches produced a nonprobability sample (N = 597) that was significantly (p < .05) different from the population of the geographical location of the study. An 86% majority self-reported a level of agreement or stronger of perceived transformation of perspectives, but differences predicted by gender were insignificant. The difference in perceived perspective transformations between respondents aged 40-59 that had the highest levels and respondents aged 60 and above that had the lowest levels was significant. The factors of influential individuals, personal reflection, and thought-provoking learning assignments significantly predicted all four factors of perspective transformation; the Writing Assignment factor was a significant negative predictor of only the Perception of Change factor, and a significant positive predictor of only the Future Benefits factor. The study recommended that additional research on faith-based frames of reference and age category differences. The study also recommended that faith-based practitioners consider emphasizing transformative learning experiences and personal reflection in their programs for adults.