Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Crop, Soil & Environmental Sciences (MS)

Degree Level



Crop, Soil & Environmental Sciences


Jason K. Norsworthy

Committee Member

Lawrence R. Oliver

Second Committee Member

Andronikos Mauromoustakos

Third Committee Member

Robert C. Scott

Fourth Committee Member

Nathan A. Slaton


Biological sciences, Glyphosate, Herbicide-resistance, Johnsongrass, Weed control


Johnsongrass, once the most persistent and troublesome grass weed of row crops throughout the southern U.S., has previously been confirmed resistant to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides in the Midsouth and has recently evolved resistance to glyphosate in Arkansas. The goal of this research was to establish the geographical distribution of herbicide-resistant johnsongrass in Arkansas and to develop herbicide programs for controlling glyphosate-resistant johnsongrass in Arkansas soybean. Johnsongrass accessions were collected from 14 counties in the Mississippi River Delta region of Arkansas and screened for resistance to four of the most commonly used postemergence herbicides for johnsongrass control. One accession with reduced sensitivity to glyphosate and another with increased tolerance to imazethapyr were further evaluated in a rate titration experiment. The lethal dose required to kill 50% of the plants from the putative glyphosate-resistant and ALS-resistant accessions was higher than that of a known susceptible biotype. In the field, a single application of glufosinate alone failed to provide season-long johnsongrass control (≤67%); however, addition of another mode of action to glufosinate did result in effective johnsongrass control throughout the growing season. Herbicide programs were developed that effectively controlled glyphosate-resistant johnsongrass in both glyphosate- and glufosinate-resistant soybean. Late-season, salvage treatments were also established for reducing seed production in an effort to prevent the spread of glyphosate-resistant johnsongrass and mitigate the evolution of additional herbicide-resistant johnsongrass biotypes. When applied at the boot stage, late-season applications of clethodim, glufosinate, and glyphosate decreased viable seed production of a glyphosate-susceptible population.