Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Community Health Promotion (MS)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Jean Henry

Committee Member

George Denny

Second Committee Member

Bart Hammig

Third Committee Member

Kristen Jozkowski


Health and environmental sciences, Education, Health, Smoking, Tobacco


Objective. It was the purpose of this study to determine if different types of smokers, as defined by their smoking frequency and behavior in the presence of others or alone, indicate different cues and deterrents to cigarette smoking. Smoker types included daily smokers and occasional smokers, with who subgroups of occasional smokers including Social smokers and chipper smokers. Methodology. A sample of 824 college students completed a cross-sectional survey regarding their smoking behaviors in the past 30 days, beliefs regarding health consequences and bystander intervention, and reasons and locations where they smoked and or refrained from smoking in the past 30 days. Results. Twenty one daily smokers (15.9%), 93 Social smokers (70.5%), and 17 chipper smokers (12.9%) reported significant differences in cues and deterrents between daily and occasional smokers and chipper and Social smokers. Daily smokers were significantly more likely than occasional smokers to report smoking in solitary locations (p