Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences

Degree Level



General Human Environmental Sciences


Rom, Curt R

Committee Member/Reader

Rosenkrans, Charles F

Committee Member/Second Reader

Rosenkrans, Charles F


Skipping breakfast is associated with weight gain and obesity, as well as cardio-metabolic risk factors, such as poor glucose control. Currently, there is debate as to what the ideal macronutrient composition of breakfast should be for optimal health. Studies have shown that subjects who eat a breakfast high in protein (PRO) stay fuller throughout the day compared to subjects who consumed a carbohydrate (CHO)-based breakfast. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if PRO quality (animal vs plant PRO) at breakfast influences postprandial satiety and glucose response in subjects consuming a higher PRO breakfast. Normal weight (NW; n=14) and overweight women (OW; n=8) ages 18-36 were recruited to participate in the study. All subjects completed two visits in a randomized, crossover design with at least one week between visits. On each testing day, height and weight, fasting blood glucose, and baseline appetite were measured. Subjects were then served one of two breakfasts similar in caloric content: animal PRO (AP; 30% PRO, 45% CHO, 29% fat), plant PRO (PP; 28% PRO, 47% CHO, 25% fat). Blood glucose and appetite were then assessed at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min postprandial.. Subjects were instructed to keep a 1- day food record for the duration of each test day. Subjects preferred (P < 0.05) the appearance of the AP to the PP, and there was no difference in taste preference. There was no difference between OW and NW for satiety and glucose response. In addition, there was no difference in satiety or glucose response between AP and PP over the 2-hour postprandial period. However, subjects had a lower peak in glucose 30 min after consuming AP (36.2%) compared to PP (44%), indicating that consumption of an AP breakfast has the potential to improve postprandial glucose response. OW subjects tended to consume more calories throughout the day after the PP compared to the AP breakfast and the NW group. Caloric intake was similar between NW and OW following the AP breakfast. These data suggest protein source influences postprandial glucose response without impacting satiety.


Health Sciences, Nutrition||Health Sciences, Public Health