Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Degree Level





VanWinkle, Holly

Committee Member/Reader

Zayas, Fernanda


Background. Chronic pain (CP) is a major public health problem that affects one-third of the population and can interfere with the activities of daily life and cause decreased quality of life. Patients with CP have been increasingly prescribed opioids, contributing to the rise in the opioid epidemic. Due to the long-term nature of CP, the use of opioids as the sole treatment for CP can cause tolerance and increased dosages overtime which can lead to addiction and potentially overdose. Therefore, CP treatment should include multimodal approaches to treatment to prevent opioid misuse, opioid use disorder (OUD), and overdose. Multimodal treatments involve a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Objectives. In adult patients (>18 years) with chronic pain treated with prescription opioids, how effective is a multimodal treatment involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in pain management and prevention of opioid use disorder compared to opioid treatment alone? Methods. An online search of PubMed and CINAHL for peer-reviewed studies from 2015-2022 was conducted. Results. The electronic search yielded 632 articles. Twenty articles were selected and assessed for information related to therapies in addition to opioid therapy that is beneficial for the treatment of CP. Additional outcomes observed in some of the studies include improved quality of life (QOL), sleep, pain relief, physical function, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Systematic approaches to integrate multimodal CP management and prevent opioid abuse and OUD are essential to promote optimal patient outcomes and prevent opioid-related morbidity and mortality. The benefits of using multiple treatment modalities for chronic pain reduction were found using all 20 studies in the review, with the most beneficial patient outcomes seen when different treatment modalities were utilized.


chronic pain, opioid therapy, opioid use disorder, multimodal treatment, prevention