yeast, cell wall, probiotic


Yeasts are single-cell, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the fungi kingdom. They are generally around 10μm in size, have a nuclear membrane, a cell wall, and a cytoplasmic content. Yeasts are characterized as heterotrophs, which means they rely on organic material as sources of energy and nutrients. Not all yeasts are equal. There are about 60 genera and about 1,500 species of yeasts. Only a few are used commercially. Thanks to its exceptional fermentative capacities and nutritional properties, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main yeast used in food, beverage and baking as well as in animal nutrition. The main types of yeasts and yeast products used in animal nutrition are live yeast probiotics, whole cell inactivated yeasts and yeast cultures, autolyzed yeasts, hydrolyzed yeasts, and yeast fractions such as yeast cell walls and yeast extracts.