Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

Degree Level



Psychological Science


Makhanova, Anastasia

Committee Member/Reader

Mixdorf, Cory

Committee Member/Second Reader

Vargas, Ivan

Committee Member/Third Reader

Harriss, Edmund


Women overrepresent men for sub-optimal sleep, a consequence of hormone fluctuation in the menstrual cycle affecting sleep regulatory pathways. While research has examined the prevalence of sub-optimal sleep through cycle phases, little research has examined how hormonal contraceptives (HC’s) could similarly affect women’s sleep, while also neglecting to utilize subjective sleep measures. In this study, we examine subjective sleep quality among naturally cycling (NC) women, women using different HC types, and between active and inactive phase pill users by subjecting 463 women to a subjective sleep battery. We hypothesized that HC users would report more sub-optimal sleep than NC women. Our study yielded non-significant total findings between sleep and HC/NC women, but marginally significant trends between individual HC types and active versus inactive pill phases. These findings suggest a more nuanced relationship between hormones and sleep, motivating future research to further delineate this relationship to improve women’s sleep-health outcomes.


sleep disorders, reproductive hormones, hormonal contraceptives, progestin generation, insomnia, hypersomnia