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The general purpose of this five-year evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee’s independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by nonschool-district entities and are considered “independent” because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District (MPS). Throughout the course of this report we will estimate four-year achievement gains for independent charter school students who were in grades 3-8 during the 2006-07 school year using reading and math achievement data from the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE). Specifically, the report presents the results of an analysis comparing achievement gains of independent charter students to the achievement gains of a carefully matched sample of students attending MPS.