Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration

Degree Level



Supply Chain Management


Worrell, Dan


Name, Image, and Likeness, “The three elements that make up the 'right of publicity,’ a legal concept used to prevent or allow the use of an individual to promote a product or service.” (“Understanding the NCAA Likeness Rule”, 2021). There is a hot topic affecting college institutions, student-athletes, and the communities that support these major sports schools known as Name, Image, and Likeness (NIL). Throughout this writing, there will be a dive into the history of how we got to July 1, 2022, the pros, cons, and gray areas in the sports industry of NIL, the real experiences of student-athletes with NIL, the legal factors of NIL and how it is affecting institutions, the overarching NCAA rules and regulations, what NIL looks like current day, and closing with where NIL will be heading to and the possible recommendations. The opinions and facts have been collected through extensive online research, interviews with experts and professionals from the athletic staff and coaches on the University of Arkansas campus, and interviews with current/past Razorback student-athletes from various sports. The athletes and professionals being quoted throughout this research paper will be anonymous and titled “Athlete A, B, etc. or Expert 1, 2, etc.” to protect their privacy.

To better understand this topic, below are definitions that will add to the understanding throughout this writing.

Name Image and Likeness (NIL): “NIL stands for Name, Image, Likeness. For years, the NCAA has used the name, image, and likeness of college athletes to promote NCAA athletic programs and drive revenue. The NCAA’s interim NIL policy allows student-athletes to receive compensation for the use of their NIL.” (“NCAA Name, Image, Likeness Rule,” n.d.).

Student-athlete: “A student athlete (sometimes written student–athlete) is a participant in an organized competitive sport sponsored by the educational institution in which he or she is enrolled. Student-athletes are full-time students and athletes at the same time.” (“Definitions for Student Athlete,” n.d.).

Donor: One that gives, donates, or presents something.” (“Donor Definition & Meaning,” n.d.)

Collective: “A NIL collective is typically driven by boosters, whether it be one-time payments or subscriptions. The NCAA defines a booster as an individual, independent agency, or corporate entity who is known by a member of the institution’s athletics administration to have participated in, or to be a member of, an agency or organization promoting the school’s intercollegiate athletics program. A booster may also assist in providing benefits to enrolled student-athletes or their family members.” (Nakos, 2022).

National Collegiate Athletic Association: “The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a member-led organization dedicated to the well-being and lifelong success of college athletes.” (“What Is the NCAA”, n.d.).

Understanding the stakeholders involved will help in grasping the diverse nature of this topic and the growing obstacles. The list of stakeholders include: the student-athletes, coaches, athletic support staff for individual teams, athletic administrators, institutions, the communities that encompass universities, fans, businesses in college towns, boosters, donors, all the athletic conferences (SEC, BIG10, MAC, ACC, etc.), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association. There are many people who care about the functionality and success of collegiate athletics, which makes the topic of NIL even more challenging as it tries to consider and please all the varying opinions and motivations.


name, image, likeness, college athletics, student-athlete