Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts

Degree Level



Sociology and Criminal Justice


Shields, Christopher

Committee Member/Reader

Gruenewald, Jeffrey

Committee Member/Second Reader

Chapman, Kate

Committee Member/Third Reader

Warren, Ron


The founding document of the United States declares that all men are created equal. However, history has shown that this is not the case. Citizens in this country have been discriminated against since its inception based on their race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, and many other factors. The first Federal Legislation passed to prevent discrimination against citizens in the United States did not come until 1968, which “made it a crime to use, or threaten to use, force to willfully interfere with any person because of race, color, religion, or national origin” (United States, Department of Justice). It took until 2009 when the hate crime laws were expanded to include crimes committed because of the victim’s perceived or actual sexual orientation or gender identity. Hate crimes are now described as “offenses involving an actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability” (18 U.S.C. § 249).


Donald Trump, Hate Crimes, Biased Homicides, Right-Wing, Far-Wing