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The Food and Drug Administration regulates the safety and labeling of almost all food in the United States other than meat, poultry, and egg products, which fall under USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Effective September 1, 2017, FSIS assumed inspection responsibility for catfish after years of Congressional lobbying by the small domestic catfish industry. This article examines how this unlikely legislative victory was won against free trade advocates representing much larger economic interests.