Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Architecture

Degree Level





Jacobus, Frank

Committee Member/Reader

Boelkins, Jonathan

Committee Member/Second Reader

Billig, Noah


Rising water levels threaten the existence of many coastal cities throughout the world, including Lower Manhattan, which is in danger of sea level rise by as much as six feet by the end of the century! Higher sea levels mean that larger storms will occur with greater frequency. Assuming that humanity does not reverse its current ecological contribution, barriers to stop rising waters will not be adequate.

Manhattan is covered by 50 feet of water, transforming New York into a new Venice. The substantial bedrock of the city provides a hefty foundation capable of supporting Manhattan’s structures for many years to come. However, the water scrubs away the ground plane, requiring a new, elevated plane of existence. A porous, artificial island structure provides connections between the stranded, free-standing structures. The layers of the city are pulled apart and re-conceptualized as urban connectors, providing multiple points of movement and occupiable space. The city provides multiple ground planes to create a style of living that truly occupies all three dimensions, and not one that is tied to a singular ground plane.


Manhattan, biomimetics, skyscrapers