Metal–Organic Frameworks and Covalent Organic Frameworks as Platforms for Photodynamic Therapy

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Article - Abstract Only

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photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer, cancer, porphyrin, metal–organic framework, covalent organic framework, targeting, theranostic effect, two-photon-excitation, pH response, heavy atom effect, metal toxicity


We describe the newest approach to photodynamic therapy (PDT) using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). PDT’s characteristic method of treating cancer as noninvasive and selective has garnered much attention. PDT has entered the realm of nanotechnology to overcome various challenges that are hindering its effectiveness. Porous materials, which are more functional than small molecules, are being explored as platforms for PDT. MOFs are at the forefront of these investigations, and the anti-tumor ability of well-designed nano-MOFs (nMOFs) has recently been reported. We also discuss the possibility of using COFs for future-use PDT.

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