Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) are an antioxidant-rich plant product due to their high content of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins and procyanidins. These polyphenols have been shown to provide protection against coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer, as well as against oxidative stress, the main cause behind chronic diseases promoted by free radicals. The objective of this study was to determine the storage effects of gelatin encapsulation on monomeric anthocyanins, procyanidins, color density, and percent polymeric color of three gummy candies of different strengths formulated with a base of 25.4% chokeberry concentrate, 47.6% sucrose, 1.3% Splenda, and 0.025% potassium sorbate. The gum strengths varied by percentages of gelatin and water in the formulations, with 19.1:6.6, 17.8:7.9, and 16.5:9.2 ratios used to produce soft, medium, and hard strength gummies, respectively. Total monomeric anthocyanins, total procyanidins, color density, and percent polymeric color of the gummies were determined 1 day post-processing and after 2, 4, and 6 months of storage at refrigerated and room temperatures. Storage for 6 months at room temperature resulted in dramatic losses of monomeric anthocyanins (80-82%), total procyanidins (48-54%), and color density (76-80%). Anthocyanin losses during storage coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values indicating that anthocyanins and procyanidins underwent condensation reactions to form polymers. Refrigerated storage ameliorated losses of monomeric anthocyanins (61-65%), total procyanidins (17-22%), and color density (60-67%) over 6 months of storage compared to samples stored at ambient temperature. Refrigerated storage also ameliorated the increase in polymeric color values observed in samples stored at room temperature indicating condensation reactions responsible for polymer formation were retarded. Gum strength did not have a significant effect on retention of anthocyanins and procyanidins.
Kordsmeier, M., & Howard, L. (2011). Storage effects of gel encapsulation on stability of chokeberry monomeric anthocyanins, procyanidins, color density, and percent polymeric color. Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences, 12(1), 58-66. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/discoverymag/vol12/iss1/11