Rice milling


Few fruit thinners have been certified for organic fruit growers. Previous studies have shown that herbicides or shade are capable of reducing photosynthesis and are effective fruit-thinning techniques, although impractical. This project evaluated use of a model plant system of vegetative apple trees grown under controlled conditions to study photosynthetic inhibitors, which could be used as potential organic thinning agents. Various concentrations of osmotics, salts, and oils (lime-sulfur, potassium bisulfite, potassium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, soybean oil) were applied to actively growing apple trees and showed a reduced trend on the rate of apple tree photosynthetic assimilation (Pn), evapotranspiration (Et), and stomatal conductance (gs). From two studies, it was observed that treatments of 2% lime-sulfur (LS) + 2% soybean oil (SO), 4% SO, 8% LS, 5% potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), and 5% potassium bisulfite (KHSO4) all significantly reduced Pn. The 4% LS + 2% SO, 4% LS + 4% SO, 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), and 2% NaCl did not significantly reduce Pn. The response of Et was significantly reduced by 2% LS + 2% SO, 5% KHCO3, and 4% SO. In a second study, trees had reduced Pn, Et, and gs after the application of 4% LS + 4% SO, 2% NaCl, 5% KHCO3, and 5% KHSO4. Stem weight, total plant weight, average leaf weight, and leaf surface area of the treated plants, although reduced, were not significantly so when compared to the control 20 d after treatment.