Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum and Instruction (PhD)

Degree Level



Curriculum and Instruction


Michael Wavering

Committee Member

Cynthia Orona

Second Committee Member

Shannon Dingman


Chi-square, Cognitively Guided Instruction, Ethnicity, Hispanic, Logistic Regression, Looping


The purpose of this quantitative study is to gain an understanding of the powerful instructional potential of combining the practice of looping, Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) professional development strategies, and the impact these practices have in addition to ethnicity in elementary education. The study focused on research questions pertaining to student's Measure of Academic Progress (MAP) scores and the implementation of looping, CGI strategies, and how ethnicity impacted student achievement.

This study emphasizes two types of statistical tests to determine how significant CGI and looping practices impacted growth in mathematics on the MAP test for different ethnic groups. A Chi-Square statistic was used not to support that the hypothesis is correct, but rather to determine if there is an association between the different groups from each variable category (e.g., looping, CGI training, and ethnicity). A logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (or probability) of the response variable (MAP growth) occurring with a combination of explanatory variables (e.g. looping, CGI training, and ethnicity). The population established in this study was all students in grades K - 5 that were representative of a stable history in the school district. A sample of the population was finalized at 1,103 students, and this number of K - 5 students represented a consistent and stable presence in the school district over the past three years. The results of the statistical analysis suggest CGI is significant with helping students achieve growth in mathematics on the MAP test--especially with Hispanic students.