Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (MEd)

Degree Level



Curriculum and Instruction


Freddie Bowles

Committee Member

Christian Z. Goering

Second Committee Member

Janet Penner-Williams


Classroom setting, Efficacy, Promoting and hinderances to willingness to community, Student attitudes, Teaching English as a Second or Foreign language, Willingness to Communicate


The objective of this study was to survey the literature on what hinders and promotes willingness to communicate in the English /Foreign language classroom. Twenty-five articles published between 2017-2022 were evaluated in this study. The review of literature concentrated on foreign language students who are studying in a higher education setting or adults who are studying English in a Literacy Center setting. Findings indicated that the student’s psychological state played a major part in a student’s willingness to communicate. This includes self-efficacy, anxiety, emotions, trust, and motivation. A student’s involvement in the learning process determines a student’s ability to communicate. Another factor that has an influence on a student’s willingness to communicate is the classroom environment. This can include the Level of the students’ affective filter in the class, the students’ peer relationships, and the demeanor of the teacher. Other factors that impact the student’s willingness to communicate is the topic of discussion, the wait time used in answering a question or having a discussion, and the relationship the teacher has with the students.