Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Kavouras, Stavros

Committee Member/Reader

McDermott, Brendon

Committee Member/Second Reader

Howie, Erin


Introduction: Adequate hydration is important element of good health. Several studies indicate that the majority of kids are hypohydrated and do not meet dietary water intake guidelines. Some scientist also suggest that good hydration might be achieved by large consumption of food that are rich in water (i.e. fruits and vegetables). However, the information of food consumption on total water intake in children is limited.

Purpose: We evaluated the contribution of water from solid food on total water intake in children.

Methodology: For this cross-sectional study 81 children (35 female) 3 to 13 years old were randomly recruited to participate. Detailed food and liquid diet for two days was recorded. The nutritional analysis software NDSR was used to calculate water intake and data are presented as average of the two days.

Results: Data showed that 50 out of 81 participants (62%) did not met Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) total water intake guidelines. Children who met IOMs recommendation drank more total water (2,527±694 ml) than the ones that did not meet the guidelines (1,315±375 ml, PPP2=0.60, P2=0.18, P<0.0001).

Discussion: Even though the data indicated that water content of solid food contributed 28% of TWI water from food was not different between the kids that met or did not met the dietary water guidelines. Also, higher plain water intake was associated stronger to total water intake than water from food. Our data might indicate the water from solid food is not a very strong determinant of appropriate water intake.