Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Degree Level



Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation


Baum, Jamie

Committee Member/Reader

Bailey, Mechelle

Committee Member/Second Reader

Lee, Sun-Ok



Background: Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States, affecting ~19% of children 2-19 years of age. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and can positively impact children’s health. However, there has been a steady decline in breakfast consumption in children over the past 40 years.

Methods: The objective of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition, protein (PRO)-based breakfast (30 g protein, 31 g carbohydrate, 11.7 g fat) or an isocaloric (360 kcal) carbohydrate (CHO)-based breakfast (13 g protein, 48 g carbohydrate, 11.7 g fat), can influence postprandial appetite and food intake in overweight/obese (OW; n=8) versus normal weight (NW; n=14) children ages 7-17 years old. Male and females participated in this randomized, double-blind study. Participants arrived fasted and received either a PRO or CHO breakfast. Appetite was measured using visual analog scales over 4 hours. Food intake was recorded using weighed food records. Energy expenditure was measured via indirect calorimetry over 4 hours. Data was analyzed using two-factor, repeated measures ANOVA or two-sample independent t-test.

Results: Overall, there was no significant difference in perceived hunger response between breakfasts, however OW tended to be hungrier and less full than NW following the meal. There was a significant effect of diet and weight on perceived fullness. There was a difference in breakfast composition on energy expenditure, with PRO having a higher (P<0.05) energy expenditure than CHO. There was no difference in taste between the two breakfasts.

Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that body weight and breakfast type influence perceived fullness and postprandial energy expenditure but that neither body weight nor breakfast type influence perceived hunger, strength of the desire to eat or food intake.


high protein, childhood obesity, protein based breakfast, increase energy expenditure, appetite