Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences

Degree Level



Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation


Baum, Jamie

Committee Member/Reader

Bailey, Mechelle

Committee Member/Second Reader

Howard, Luke

Committee Member/Third Reader

Rosenkrans, Charles



Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postprandial. Data was analyzed using 2-way ANOVA for effects of protein source over time and one-way ANOVA for area under the curve (niAUC). Resting EE niAUC was 8% lower in BP vs PP and 5% lower vs WP. Thermic effect of feeding niAUC was 77% lower in BP vs WP; PP was 43% lower than WP. Carbohydrate oxidation was higher (31%) with PP compared to WP with no difference between BP and WP. Fat oxidation was 23% higher in WP vs BP and PP. WP was most satiating. Participants had a higher craving for sweet foods following PP and a higher desire for snacks following BP. Food intake post-treatment was similar in calories and macronutrient distribution. This suggests that protein source is not a predictor of postprandial EE, appetite response, or food intake.

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