Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences

Degree Level



Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation


Hawley, Aubree

Committee Member/Reader

Baum, Jamie

Committee Member/Second Reader

Trudo, Sabrina


Background: Obesity is a quickly growing epidemic that is affecting adults in the United States leading to many chronic diseases and reduced well-being. Time Restricted Feeding (TRF) is type of dietary intervention that is gaining popularity among adults for weight loss. However, current data is lacking regarding the effectiveness of TRF on facets of well-being such as sleep and mood. Moreover, to our knowledge protein supplementation in conjunction with TRF has yet to be studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time restricted feeding supplemented with whey protein isolate on food intake, sleep, and mood, in overweight or obese adults.

Methods: Nineteen participants were randomly assigned to the control group or experimental group: 1) control, TRF (n=10) and 2) TRF with whey protein supplementation (25 g/d; n=9). Protein supplements were consumed at the breaking of the fasting period each day and both groups followed a TRF dietary intervention (8 hour eating window with a 16 hour fast). Participants followed the assigned dietary intervention for 12 weeks. Subjects came to the Center for Human Nutrition for sample collection and measurements to be taken. Anthropometrics, including height and weight, were measured along with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire, and dietary record results every 4 weeks (baseline, week 4, week 8, and week 12) at the Center for Human Nutrition. Additionally, actigraphy measured objective sleep quality at week 1 and week 12.

Results: Overall, there were no significant differences between the control and protein group regarding sleep and mood parameters. The PSQI results indicated no difference in sleep between groups. After controlling for tension-anxiety scores for baseline, there was a significant decrease in the protein group compared to the control at week 12 (p<0.01). Lastly, total food consumption was similar between groups with no significance except the amount of protein consumed each day, which was higher in the protein group (p <0.01).

Conclusion: The results suggested whey protein isolate supplementation with TRF may improve outcomes of mood with no effect on sleep. Therefore, results from this study identify a need for further research to investigate the benefits from TRF and protein supplementation on sleep and mood.


Dietary Restriction, Intermittent Fasting, Time Restricted Feeding