Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences

Degree Level



Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation


Baum, Jamie

Committee Member/Reader

Bailey, Mechelle

Committee Member/Second Reader

Hill, Laura


As life expectancy continues to rise, it is important to consider optimal nutrition recommendations to improve health outcomes, quality of life, and physical independence in older adults. Previous studies have focused on the impact of breakfast on postprandial appetite in younger adults. Research on the effects of breakfast on appetite in older adults is limited. Several studies have identified protein as a key nutrient for older adults. Protein has been shown to increase satiety for longer periods of time and decrease cravings later in the day when compared to high carbohydrate meals. However, more research is needed to determine the influence of varying protein sources on appetite and satiety response, especially in older adults. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of protein density [(high quality, animal protein (e.g. whey protein) versus lower quality, plant protein (e.g. pea protein)] at breakfast on postprandial energy expenditure, appetite, and food intake in young and older men. This study was a randomized, crossover design. Eighteen men were recruited to participate in this study (n=12, younger men ages 18-29 years; n=6, older men (60 years of age and older). Participants received either a whey or pea protein breakfast beverage with a 1-2 week washout period between test days. Energy expenditure, appetite and blood values were measure for 240 minutes following the breakfast meal. At the conclusion of the test day, participants recorded their dietary intake via 24-hour food logs. There was no significant effect of diet or age on TEF, young men had a significantly higher TEF (P < 0.01) compared to older men following whey protein consumption. Pea protein decreased hunger and increased fullness following consumption. Both age and protein quality influenced appetite and energy expenditure following breakfast.


protein quality, satiety, energy expenditure, young versus older, sarcopenia