admixture, seed purity, agricultural exports, European Union (EU), farm-level management practices, traceability requirements, labeling requirements, seed laws, regulations, product standards, safe-harbor provision

Document Type



Adoption of genetically modified (GM) seed varieties in the United States, Canada, and South America continues to expand, with GM crops comprising almost 76 million hectares and over 93 percent of the total biotech cropland worldwide. As an increasing number of farmers plant GM varieties, the potential for adventitious mixture of genetically modified DNA with products produced via organic and conventional (non-GM) methods also increases. Many consumers of organic and identity-preserved products, however, object to the adventitious presence of genetically modified DNA at even low levels. Accordingly, the ability of farmers to choose between conventional, organic, or GM crop production and achieve required purity levels-commonly referred to as coexistence-is increasingly difficult.