Application of Eugenol in Poultry to Control Salmonella Colonization and Spread
poultry, Salmonella, salmonellosis, chicken manure, multi-drug resistant strains, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, eugenol
The poultry sector is an essential component of agriculture that has experienced unprecedented growth during the last few decades. It is especially true for the United States, where the average intake of chicken meat increased from 10 pounds (4.5 kg) per person in 1940 to 65.2 pounds (29.6 kg) per person in 2018, while the country produced 113 billion eggs in 2019 alone. Besides providing nutrition and contributing significantly to the economy, chicken is also a natural reservoir of Salmonella, which is responsible for salmonellosis in humans, one of the significant foodborne illnesses around the globe. The increasing use of chicken manure and antibiotics increases the spread of Salmonella and selects for multi-drug resistant strains. Various plant extracts, primarily essential oils, have been investigated for their antimicrobial activities. The multiple ways through which these plant-derived compounds exert their antimicrobial effects make the development of resistance against them unlikely. Eugenol, an aromatic oil primarily found in clove and cinnamon, has shown antimicrobial activities against various pathogenic bacteria. A few reports have also highlighted the anti-Salmonella effects of eugenol in chicken, especially in reducing the colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, the primary Salmonella species responsible for human salmonellosis. Besides limiting Salmonella infection in chicken, the supplementation of eugenol also significantly improves intestinal health, improving overall well-being. In this review, we highlight the rising incidences of salmonellosis worldwide and the factors increasing its prevalence. We then propose the usage of eugenol as a natural feed supplement for containing Salmonella in chicken.
Aljuwayd, M., Malli, I. A., & Kwon, Y. M. (2023). Application of Eugenol in Poultry to Control Salmonella Colonization and Spread. Veterinary Sciences, 10 (2) https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020151
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