Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Sociology and Criminal Justice


Bradley, Mindy

Committee Member/Reader

Drawve, Grant

Committee Member/Second Reader

Beike, Denise

Committee Member/Third Reader

Baranello, Micaela


Pets have historically been viewed as family members, children, property, or economic resources. However, research surrounding animal maltreatment has expressed this issue as an individually-based problem, rather than a community-based phenomenon. Correlations have been found between animal cruelty, antisocial behaviors, and future interpersonal violence, whether this correlation be a predictive relationship, or a resultant relationship. Past research has also found correlations between animal treatment practices and the rural/urban differences of this behavior. However, there are many community-based indicators that have not been explored to understand the distribution of animal maltreatment. This study aims to explore these ideas by analyzing the geographic distribution of differing types of animal-related 311 calls for service across Little Rock, AR between 2016-2019. Through statistical analyses as well as the 3D mapping of the data of 311 calls for animal-related services, I found specific block group differences in the spatial distribution of calls for aggressive animals, animal abuse, stray animals, and barking dogs. I also found specific racial patterns that correlated with these call types. “Pet Care Deserts”, areas that have little to no access to pet care resources, were located in the same neighborhoods that had higher than expected rates of calls in relation to total number of calls, showing that the communities that need resources the most do not have access to them. The findings in this study can help guide future policies and resources to the communities most in need of the benefits and can provide unofficial resources for predicting and understanding social disorder in communities.


Animal Maltreatment, Animal Cruelty, Little Rock, Sociology, Crime, Race