Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

Degree Level



Chemical Engineering


Penney, W. Roy

Committee Member/Reader

Ackerson, Michael


The disposal of large Off-the-Road (OTR) tires is an increasingly important concern. These tires can weigh up to 8,450 pounds with an overall diameter and width of approximately 140.7 inches and 45.1 inches respectively. OTR tires are used for mining vehicles such as haul trucks, wheel loaders, backhoes, graders, and trenchers. These new tires cost between $38,000 and $50,000 each, depending on multiple factors including oil prices and the cyclical nature of the industry. Haul trucks contain six tires per vehicle, and mines replace these tires around every 9-12 months. Statistics regarding discarded OTR tires are not provided by the industry as they are for other types of tires. Thus, it is difficult to approximate the number and location of waste OTR tires not only in individual states, but in the U.S. in general. Currently, Minnesota and Arizona are the only states that place regulations and fees on OTR tires. However, Minnesota is the only state that actually tracks them.[3] The Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA) roughly estimates that OTR tires account for 1% of scrap tires by number and 15% by weight. When the tires are replaced, the old tires can be discarded with the waste rock in stockpiles at the mining site but more often are landfilled without documentation by an appropriate agency due to lack of federal regulations. Their low density and hollow centers cause them to float to the top of landfills, disrupting the compactness. Also, tires have a heat content 20-40% greater than that of coal which can be very dangerous on the rare occasions that tires catch fire in stockpiles. Furthermore, burning tires release hazardous substances including pyrolytic oil, ash, and smoke, which contain carcinogens, heavy metals, and other toxic compounds. Due to the large size of OTR tires, there are few facilities that can accommodate their recycling. This leads to increased costs in transporting them to such sites. Transportation costs for a tire taken out of service can be up to $1000. In addition to the freight costs, recycling an OTR tire can cost up to $1500 because of their rugged construction compared to passenger tires which cost around $1 to recycle. In response to the waste OTR tire problem, the Ball Hogs from the University of Arkansas have designed a solution that recycles OTR tires by using old tires as liners in ball mills for hard rock mines. Ball mills are large cylindrical vessels consisting of an outer shell, an inside liner and a load of metal balls. A motor turns the ball mill using a transmission system causing the metal balls to move in a cascading motion to grind the material fed into the ball mill. Ball mills require liners that are constructed from materials such as steel or rubber. For a 30 ft long ball mill with a 20 ft diameter, a hard rubber liner reinforced with steel can cost $150,000. These liners are replaced at least once a year, creating a substantial upkeep cost for these ball mills. Metal mines in Bolivia are already using tractor tires to line many ball mills. This technique has been effective for over twenty years. The high import costs of new liners and the low cost of labor has led many Bolivian metal processors to use truck and tractor tires as liners in their ball mills. This construction normally occurs on site using tools like handsaws, drills, torches and knives to cut up tires and manpower to mount these tire-made liners onto mills. However, this is not always the case in the U.S. where labor costs are much higher and the mills are generally larger. Many mines in the U.S. do not have the means to fabricate and install these liners on site; therefore, a third-party solution is proposed that will take a mine’s discarded tires and make ball mill liners out of them. The Ball Hogs’ solution provides an environmentally and economically feasible process of increasing the life of OTR tires beyond their typical use. This alternative would utilize the engineering and technology that makes these tires strong enough to hold a 400 ton truck. Mining companies would save yearly an average of $70,000 per ball mill liner replacement, and over 780,000 kg of CO2 per liner. Furthermore, mining companies would earn positive public relations, goodwill, and tax breaks.