Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science Education

Degree Level



Curriculum and Instruction


Schaefer-Whitby, Peggy

Committee Member/Reader

Speight, Renee

Committee Member/Second Reader

Ezike, Nnamdi


This study investigated the variables that might impact primary school in-school suspension (ISS) and out-of-school suspension (OSS) in a rural state in the southern region of the United States. Data for the present study were collected from the state’s Department of Education’s discipline database. Data was analyzed across three school years using separate multilevel growth modeling approaches: one with ISS rate as the dependent variable and another with OSS rate as the dependent variable. (Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Predictors in both models include the percentage of English-language learner students, percentage of low-income students, percentage of students eligible for SPED, the county profile, student population, type of institution (majority White/Black), and gender. Findings suggest that the average ISS rates significantly increased over the three years. Additionally, students who identify as black, male, low-income, English-language learners, and who receive special education are at a higher risk of ISS and OSS.


preschool, primary school, in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, expulsion