Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering


Computer Science and Computer Engineering


Patitz, Matthew

Committee Member/Reader

Andrews, David

Committee Member/Second Reader

Gashler, Mike


In this paper, we prove that the three-dimensional abstract Tile Assembly Model (3DaTAM) is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a universal tile set in the 3DaTAM which can be used to simulate any 3DaTAM system. This result adds to a body of work on the intrinsic universality of models of self-assembly, and is specifically motivated by a result in FOCS 2016 showing that any intrinsically universal tile set for the 2DaTAM requires nondeterminism (i.e. undirectedness) even when simulating directed systems. To prove our result we have not only designed, but also fully implemented what we believe to be the first intrinsically universal tile set which has been implemented and simulated in any tile assembly model, and have made it and a simulator which can display it freely available.


self-assembly, simulation, universal, complexity, abstract Tile Assembly System