Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

Degree Level



Electrical Engineering


Mantooth, H. Alan, 1963-


The importance of low voltage and low powered electronics is increasing with advances in medical electronics. This branch of electronics specifically requires low voltage and low power to make efficient innovative medical equipment. Low power electronics are also desirable because it conserves energy and power. This paper proposes a design of a differential in - differential our amplifier that uses a bulk-driven differential pair for the input pair. In addition, it also used bulk-driven current mirrors for the tail current sink and the active loads. The bulkdriven technique helps to achieve the low voltage design. 90nm CMOS technology was considered for the design but at the end SIGE 5AM process was chosen as it has low threshold voltage values maintaining good current - voltage characteristics. The software Cadence was used to simulate the design. A layout of the amplifier is out of the scope of this paper. A gain of 14 dB was achieved using a rail-to-rail voltage of 1V (0.5V to -0.5). The power dissipation was 102uW using 5pF capacitive loads. The values of the calculations match the values of the simulations quite well. Some of the differences can be explained by the lack of accurate knowledge of the some of the process parameters for the SIGE 5AM process. Overall, the design achieved its goals and a successful low voltage and low power fully differential amplifier was created with respectable gain. This amplifier can be used as an input stage for an operational amplifier.