Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

Degree Level



Electrical Engineering


Saunders, Robert


This paper examines the load flow analysis of a high-voltage substation using ETAP, and explores options for improving the voltage profile of the system. This study yields critical information about the system, such as the voltage drop at each feeder, the voltage at each bus, as well as real and reactive power losses at the different branches and feeders. In this power flow examination, the system’s performance is evaluated for different operating conditions, so that control measurements can be applied if necessary. The experimental results are used for proposing a plan of using fixed and switched shunt capacitor banks to improve the voltage stability of the substation. Distribution systems include inductive loads along with transformers and transmission lines, which account for quite significant power loss due to lagging current. The introduction of strategically sized and positioned shunt capacitors within the distribution system, helps to counteract losses due to inductive elements and improves the voltage profile of the network. The problem of capacitor allocation includes the location, type (fixed or switched), and size of capacitor. To determine the sizing of the shunt capacitor bank necessary to compensate inductive effect of the loads, power flow equations are used along with the ETAP simulation results. The results obtained in the load flow analysis will be substituted into these equations to perform a power factor correction. Overall, the purpose of this paper is to use the ETAP software to analyze the load flow operation of the substation, and perform the necessary adjustments so that it meets the National Standards for Electrical Power Systems.


Substation, ETAP, Load Flow Analysis, Voltage Profile, Distribution System, Power Factor Correction, Service learning