Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

Degree Level



Electrical Engineering


Mantooth, Alan


Analog and digital signals both play a vital role in electrical engineering and the technology of today. As the role of electrical and computer engineers becomes more deeply involved in the development of new technology, an understanding of how these signals are utilized, and what they represent, is a necessity. Due to the inherent limitations involved with analog signals, there is a need for these signals to be accurately and efficiently converted to digital signals for processing. The job of the analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, is to receive this analog input signal (voltage or current) and create a digital representation of it based on a specified number of bits, or resolution. In this paper, the design and testing of a sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter will be presented. An explanation of how each component operates within the system will be discussed and the results of testing each of these components as well as the system as a whole will be provided. It will be seen that from fundamental building blocks such as switched-capacitors, op-amps, and digital logic, a fast and efficient system of converting analog to digital signals can be derived. Sigma-delta converters are an increasingly common architecture of ADC used due to the small number of components needed and the low noise, high resolution conversion offered. Through the process of designing and simulating a very basic sigma-delta converter, the fundamental concepts of integrated circuit design, signal processing, and ADC design will be thoroughly explored.


Sigma-delta, ADC, CMOS, Mixed-signal, IC design, Data converters