Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences

Degree Level



Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation


Baum, Jamie

Committee Member/Reader

Hawley, Aubree

Committee Member/Second Reader

Lee, Sun-Ok


In 2019, around 40% of school-aged children in Arkansas were classified as overweight (~17%) and obese (~23%), according to BMI data collected. Children with obesity have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Unhealthy eating habits, such as skipping breakfast, have been strongly associated with overeating, weight gain and obesity. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and can positively impact children’s health and well-being. However, there has been a steady decline in breakfast consumption in US children over the past 40 years. Specifically, breakfast consumption declined among 8–10-yearold children by 9% and adolescents by 13-20%. In addition, in Arkansas, >300,000 (10% of the state’s population) children receive free or reduced lunch and only 63.5% of these children participate in the School Breakfast Program. It has been established that protein is exceptionally important in regard to children’s nutritional needs, growth, and development. It has also been proven that consuming protein in the morning with breakfast is exceedingly beneficial for children and may help reduce hunger and food intake. However, convenient, high-protein breakfast foods are lacking. In addition, children’s acceptance of different protein sources such as pea protein or whey protein has not been studied. The original objectives of this project were to 1) develop a protein-based breakfast muffin for children using different protein sources, 2) to determine the effects of different protein sources on the sensory properties of muffins, and 3) to determine children’s acceptance of different protein sources. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we were only able to address objectives 1 and 2.


Protein, Muffins, Pediatrics, Acceptance, Fiber