Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Degree Level





Ballentine, Hope

Committee Member/Reader

Hall, David


Background: Comprehensive sex education instills knowledge and promotes the health of all youth, however, most sex education remains heteronormative. School-based programs in the United States (US) emphasize monogamous, heterosexual relationships. In 2021, only 7.4% of students received sex education that included positive representations of both LGB and transgender people and nonbinary topics, while 72% of programs across the US omit LGBTQ+ topics. Most new HIV diagnoses occur in gay and bisexual men aged 13-34, but the sex education environment for this group is increasingly hostile as more states prohibit addressing these topics in public schools.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if comprehensive and inclusive sex education results in increased sexual health efficacy of the LGBTQ+ community.

Methods: An expanded literature review was conducted using PubMed. A variety of search terms were used resulting in a total of 3989 articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and reaching content saturation, 20 peer-reviewed articles were selected

Results: Inclusive sex education programming decreases negative outcomes of sexual health by which LGBTQ+ youth are disproportionately affected, increases supportive school climates which promotes positive outlooks about LGBTQ+ and decreasing homophobia. Stigmatization, which is increased in environments without inclusive sex education, is an overarching factor in decreased STI/HIV testing and adherence to preventative strategies of risky sexual behavior.

Conclusions: Overall findings indicated that more research needs to be conducted, but compelling evidence exists that comprehensive sex education inclusive of LGBTQ topics promotes sexual literacy of all.


LGBTQ+, disparities, sexual education, inclusive education, comprehensive sex education, HIV/STIs